Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, and Sarah B. Pomeroy. [95] Numismatic evidence shows that Hellenic influence penetrated further inland. He ruled until 238 BC when Arsaces, the leader of the Parni tribe conquered Parthia, killing Andragoras and inaugurating the Arsacid Dynasty. Other Scythians on the steppes of Central Asia came into contact with Hellenistic culture through the Greeks of Bactria. The library of Alexandria included a zoo for research and Hellenistic zoologists include Archelaos, Leonidas of Byzantion, Apollodoros of Alexandria and Bion of Soloi. In this political climate, Hellenistic philosophers went in search of goals such as ataraxia (un-disturbedness), autarky (self-sufficiency), and apatheia (freedom from suffering), which would allow them to wrest well-being or eudaimonia out of the most difficult turns of fortune. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World, 2007. p. 190. Many Greek and Hellenistic ideas were spread throughout the countries such as, Egypt, India and Southwest Asia. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from ancient Greek Ἑλληνιστής (Hellēnistḗs, "one who uses the Greek language"), from Ἑλλάς (Hellás, "Greece"); as if "Hellenist" + "ic". The image of Alexander the Great was also an important artistic theme, and all of the diadochi had themselves depicted imitating Alexander's youthful look. As a result, in an attempt to reduce Roman influence in the Balkans, Philip allied himself with Carthage after Hannibal had dealt the Romans a massive defeat at the Battle of Cannae (216 BC) during the Second Punic War. After Alexander's death he was defeated by Eumenes and crucified in 322 BC, but his son, Ariarathes II managed to regain the throne and maintain his autonomy against the warring Diadochi. Arsaces II sued for peace and became a vassal of the Seleucids. After their defeat in the First Punic War, Carthage hired a Spartan mercenary captain, Xanthippus of Carthage, to reform their military forces. Demetrius possibly died about 180 BC; numismatic evidence suggests the existence of several other kings shortly thereafter. Pliny the Elder, after having described the sculpture of the classical period, says: Cessavit deinde ars ("then art disappeared"). The third era of ancient Greek history was the Hellenistic Age when the Greek language and culture spread throughout the Mediterranean world. [121] The rise of philosophy and the sciences had removed the gods from many of their traditional domains such as their role in the movement of the heavenly bodies and natural disasters. Gent, John. His son, Herod Archelaus, ruled from 4 BC to AD 6 when he was deposed for the formation of Roman Judea. Another poet, Apollonius of Rhodes, attempted to revive the epic for the Hellenistic world with his Argonautica. 21–99. The states of the Hellenistic period were deeply fixated with the past and its seemingly lost glories. Magic was practiced widely, and this, too, was a continuation from earlier times. The Hellenistic Period dates between Alexander the Great’s death, in 323 BC, to the Roman annexation of Egypt in 30 BC. The Indo-Greek kingdom appears to have lingered on in western Punjab until about AD 10, at which time it was finally ended by the Indo-Scythians. After the fall of the Seleucid dynasty, the Parthians fought frequently against neighbouring Rome in the Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC â€“ AD 217). Some coins describe the Armenian kings as "Philhellenes". The word Hellenistic comes from the root word Hellas, which was the ancient Greek word for Greece. Getae in Wallachia and Moldavia coined Getic tetradrachms, Getic imitations of Macedonian coinage.[96]. These Hellenized Scythians were known as the "young Scythians". ... Later it spread over to Taxila, Mathura and Sarnath. The royal palace (basileion) also came into its own during the Hellenistic period, the first extant example being the massive 4th-century villa of Cassander at Vergina. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. Numismatic evidence shows Greek artistic styles and the use of the Greek language. place concurring and befriending the people of their country. Hellenistic culture was created when Alexander moved place to The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). The Kingdom of Pontus was a Hellenistic kingdom on the southern coast of the Black Sea. The language of Philip II's and Alexander's court and army (which was made up of various Greek and non-Greek speaking peoples) was a version of Attic Greek, and over time this language developed into Koine, the lingua franca of the successor states. An unknown engineer developed the torsion-spring catapult (c. 360 BC) and Dionysios of Alexandria designed a repeating ballista, the Polybolos. Before the Hellenistic period, Greek colonies had been established on the coast of the Crimean and Taman peninsulas. Euclid developed proofs for the Pythagorean Theorem, for the infinitude of primes, and worked on the five Platonic solids. The Achaeans refused and declared war on Rome. By the 2nd century BC, the kingdom of Numidia also began to see Hellenistic culture influence its art and architecture. The spread of Hellenistic culture. Ariarathes V also waged war with Rome against Aristonicus, a claimant to the throne of Pergamon, and their forces were annihilated in 130 BC. Reading ConnectionImagine you are a leading citi- Xanthippus reformed the Carthaginian military along Macedonian army lines. [109] Antioch was founded as a metropolis and center of Greek learning which retained its status into the era of Christianity. [83][84] Out of this revolt was formed an independent Jewish kingdom known as the Hasmonaean Dynasty, which lasted from 165 BC to 63 BC. 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